Volume 06 - Issue 02

April 2018

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Changes in Teachers’ Work and Professionalism in England: Impressions from the "shop floor"

Halil Buyruk
Pages: 1-20

Teachers' work together with the education systems has experienced many changes in most of the western countries since 1980s. England has played a leading role in the application of educational reforms which has been accelerated in recent years. This article aims to analyse the changes in teachers’ work and professionalism in England based on teachers’ professional experiences. For this aim, firstly, it focuses on the main debates on teacher professionalism followed by an analysis of the educational reforms of English education system that have impacts on teachers’ work directly. Then, it presents findings from a qualitative research based on the narratives of sixteen teachers to explore their roles in decision-making process and professional experiences by focusing on the inside of the school. Despite the discourse that there is an increasing professional autonomy of teachers with the local management of schools, the increasing control mechanisms based on standardized testing, national curriculum and inspections are eliminating their voices in decision-making processes. However, they sometimes experience these processes in different ways in different schools and this is important to understand the agencies of teachers in particular contexts.

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Moral reasoning stages of secondary school head teachers of Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in the light of Kohlberg’s theory of moral development

Umar Farooq R.A. Farooq Rabia Tabassum Shafqat Ali Khan
Pages: 21-28

The study was designed to investigate the moral reasoning stages of head teachers of secondary schools of Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Objectives of the study were (1) to investigate the stages of moral reasoning among secondary school head teachers in the light of Kohlberg’s theory of moral development, (2) to find out the differences in moral reasoning of secondary school head teachers of Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa provinces, (3) to determine the differences in moral reasoning of secondary school head teachers of rural and urban areas. The target population consisted of 5816 secondary school head teachers of Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Sample consisted of 160 head teachers. To identify the stages of moral development of head teachers, Kohlberg’s Moral Judgment Interview, Form A was used as an instrument to collect the data. The responses of the head teachers were interpreted by using Standard Issue Scoring Manual. Chi- square technique was used to determine the differences in moral reasoning of secondary school head teachers of Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and rural and urban areas. It was concluded that due to their response to the presented moral dilemmas, majority of the head teachers were ranked at stage 3/4 and 4 of the conventional level. No significant differences were detected in the moral reasoning of secondary school head teachers of Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and also in the moral reasoning stages of secondary school head teachers of rural and urban areas.

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Preschool English Teachers’ Practices and Early Literacy Instruction: Montessori vs. International Preschool Curriculum (IPC)

Adelina Asmawi Nazila SeyedHendi
Pages: 29-36

The practices preschool teachers implement in their classrooms are vital in their students’ literacy development. Preschool teachers are always expected to implement research-based literacy practices to ensure children are ready to learn when they enter school. This multiple-case study intended to address four non-native in-service preschool English teachers’ practices in early literacy instruction. Data collection involved interviews and videotaping of classroom practices along with documents from ten full English lesson observations in each classroom. For this multiple case study, the analysis for each case was conducted to identify themes and subthemes. A cross case analysis was also conducted to find overall themes and subthemes common to both cases. The overall conclusion generated from the results of the data analyses is that though teachers and preschool principals in the same school district using various curriculum perceived that they were effectively applying early English literacy instruction, there was actually a divide between the curriculum and what they implemented in classrooms. There was not enough interaction between teacher and children. Therefore, it is necessary to help teachers improve their understanding of the links between learning, teaching and social interaction in the area of early English literacy.

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Reliability and Validity of the Instrument Measuring Values in Mathematics Classrooms

Ruzela Tapsir Nik Azis Nik Pa Sharifah Norul Akmar Bt Syed Zamri
Pages: 37-47

implemented, and measured although value is a significant affective aspect of mathematics learning. In this article, it is proposed that an instrument is developed to measure the said values which will benefit the teaching and learning mathematics. Discussion will focus on the reliability and validity of the sub-constructs and the instrument. The instrument consisted of 36 items with three sub-constructs, namely the general education values, mathematics education values, and mathematics values. Each of the sub-construct is represented by several dimensions. Data was collected from 325 lecturers of 17 matriculation colleges in the country. Descriptive statistics, reliability statistics for the construct, sub-constructs, and dimensionsand item analysis comprising ofinter-item correlation, item-total correlation, and Cronbach’s alpha value when item was deleted were demonstrated. The proposed framework theoretical structure was checked for uni-dimensionality using Principal Analysis Residuals and several fit indices usingConfirmatory Factor analysis. The Cronbach Alpha values for the construct, three sub-constructs, and nine dimensions were found to be reasonably high. Results from the higher order Confirmatory Factor Analysisindicated that the structure of the general education values and mathematics values did not portray an acceptable goodness of fit. Only the values in mathematics education were found to have acceptable goodness fit values. Item analysis indicated thatitems have good correlation with other items and acceptable item-total correlation amongst items within the sub-construct, construct, and the nine dimensions. Principal Analysis of Residuals results indicated that there is a possibility of the mathematics education and mathematics values to be uni-dimensional. The instrument may provide more knowledge on values development in mathematics classrooms. However, in depth research focusing on the dimensions and value indicators was advisable besides executing the study on a larger sample in order to gain more information on the reliability and validity of the instrument.

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Teaching Practices of Malaysian Science Teachers: Role of Epistemic Beliefs and Implicit Intelligence

Chin Hai Leng Mariani Md Nor Nabeel Abedalaziz Antriman Vipinosa Orleans A.Y.M. Atiquil Islam Zahra Naimie
Pages: 48-59

The present study investigated how science teachers’ beliefs about intelligence and their beliefs about knowing and knowledge acquisition influence their teaching practices. A total of 285 science teachers were participated in the present study. Our survey included three parts, namely: epistemological beliefs inventory, implicit theories of intelligence scale, and teaching practices scale. Results revealed that: (1) Malaysian teachers hold more eclectic beliefs in which they viewed teaching as a combination of student-directed along with some teacher-centered learning; (2) Malaysian teachers hold sophisticated epistemological beliefs; (3) Malaysian teachers were incremental theorists; (4) Teachers who hold sophisticated epistemic beliefs and incremental theorists were more likely to adopt student-centered practices; and (5) Teachers teaching practices are antecedents of epistemic beliefs and implicit intelligence beliefs variables. In conclusion, the present study shed light on how teachers’ beliefs influence their preference for teaching practices identified as either student-centered or teacher-centered.

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