Wait-Time and Multiple Representation Levels in Chemistry Lessons

Volume 02 - Issue 02
Winnie Sim Siew Li Mohammad Yusof Arshad
Pages: 45-53 Download Count : 1852 View Count: 1307 Facebook Share on Google+ Save to Zotero Save to Mendeley


Wait-time is an important aspect in a teaching and learning process, especially after the teacher has posed questions to students, as it is one of the factors in determining quality of students' responses. This article describes the practices of wait-time one after teacher's questions at multiple representation levels among twenty three chemistry teachers at secondary schools in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia and the sequences after the wait-time one practices. The study was conducted over eight months using observation as the main method of data collection. Observations were made twice for each respondent by using the Observation Instrument in Inquiry Teaching through Verbal Interaction (OIITVI). Forty six observations were audio and video recorded. Findings showed that only 6.80% of total questions at multiple representation levels were followed by wait-time one. This result showed that teachers lacked practise of wait-time. Three top sequences after wait-time one were teacher giving instruction, student's answer at macroscopic level and teacher's questions at macroscopic level. In conclusion, chemistry teachers should practise wait-time one to improve the quality of teaching and learning of chemistry.


  • wait-time one; macroscopic; submicroscopic level; symbolic level; multiple representation levels
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